Covid-19 is insidious and it’s coming for all of us unless we do something differently.
Covid-19 is not just like a cold. Letting it rip unimpeded is adding an enormous, unsustainable health debt to ourselves, our families, our businesses and our society. Herd Immunity was never possible and certainly isn’t now. Long Covid isn’t just real, it’s devastating and surprisingly common.
Covid-19 is devastating kids and adults today, both vaccinated and unvaccinated. And, it’s getting worse.
Covid-19 is spread (mostly) via aerosolized particles. It comes in through your respiratory system, but often spreads to other systems in your body. Covid-19 is airborne. Most people get it by breathing in air that contains tiny aerosols that can linger in the air for hours.
Previous or current Covid-19 infections are suppressing kids’ and adults’ immune systems (sometimes called Post Covid Immune Deficiency or PCID) while damaging our organs. It’s providing the opening for other viral and bacterial infections like RSV, Flu, Rhinovirus (common cold) and Strep to run wild without normal immune responses (not “Immunity Debt” — a largely debunked theory new Sweden study).
Hospitals and kids’ hospitals are filling again in many parts of the western world.
Covid-19 simply isn’t over. It’s spreading nearly everywhere. It’s mutating so much that most Rapid Antigen Tests (most home tests) have high false negative results.
It’s escaping immunity from vaccines and prior infections (great article in Time) with frightening speed (Updated article): . As a result, even with “hybrid immunity,” you can get reinfected many times a year — as soon as 3 weeks after the acute phase.
Each time you are reinfected, you’re playing Russian Roulette with both acute (“having Covid”) and post-acute Covid (Long Covid). Each infection seems to be aging our bodies. Studies on Long Covid are early, but point to a likelihood of between 1 in 5 and 1 in 20 chance of getting Long Covid and/or suffering long-term organ damage each time you’re infected. Having an infection increases your chances of dying for at least 18 months.
The available vaccines are exceptionally effective at protecting you from severe symptoms during the acute phase, but offer little to no protection from Long Covid, reinfections or passing Covid-19 to others.
Because Covid-19 causes immune system dysfunction for at least 8 months, your next reinfection may be worse than your last as your immune system is less able to fight it (there is conflicting data about whether the severity of infection impacts immune system dysfunction — new pre-print study). Your body is also likely to succumb to other infections at the same time as your increasingly stressed immune system struggles to fight Covid-19. There are even reports of opportunistic superbugs spreading.
Young, previously healthy people are dropping dead (JAMA study) or facing life-altering disabilities at alarming rates. Rates of micro clots (and here), type 1 diabetes, MIS-C, heart damage, lung damage, brain damage, liver damage (in kids too), birth defects, autoimmune disorders, chest pains, chronic fatigue are too high and getting worse (in kids too).
Covid-19 is impacting multiple organs in many patients in the post-acute phase, regardless of whether you had severe or mild symptoms or were even asymptomatic.
Studies are showing signs of brain damage (visible on PET and MRI scans), cardiovascular damage (micro clots, heart damage, lung damage) and other organ damage after infection even in patients with few or no symptoms.
There is no herd immunity coming to save us. It’s too widespread, mutating too quickly and evading prior immunity. We’re in too deep to vaccinate our way out of it with today’s vaccines.
Unfortunately, many doctors and other health care providers are providing inaccurate, incomplete, inconsistent and/or unsynthesized information to their patients. “My doctor told me not to worry” is both dangerous and common.
If you ask 5 pediatricians about the risks to kids at school related to Covid-19, you’ll get 5 wildly different answers.
Why their answers would be so diverse may be complicated, but the flood of disinformation, underwhelming CDC support and the unprecedented surge in complex, sick patients to treat are at least partly to blame.
Schools are a serious transmission vector for kids and communities. They’re largely failing to protect their students and staff. Many are suffering massive staffing shortages (CNBC story) as teachers and other staff get sick, lose their ability to work and/or don’t want to work in such an unsafe environment.
Schools across America are closing for weeks at a time as too many staff and/or students are sick at the same time. (see multiple sources at bottom of article)
It doesn’t have to be like this. We don’t have to gradually and then suddenly destroy ourselves to keep society together, to produce and consume goods or to maintain healthy social relationships.
Our kids can attend schools. We can do most of the things we want to do. But, we have to stop the unimpeded, airborne spread of COVID.
We just have to breathe cleaner air indoors to end this cycle. It’s that simple and that difficult.
We have the tools. They aren’t very complicated, expensive or otherwise difficult. They just take more effort than pretending everything is ok. And, they rely on us sharing a common reality.
Cleaning indoor air provides a tremendous business ROI — increased productivity, fewer sick days (lots of lost productivity McKinsey report), lower healthcare costs, less turnover and fewer actually brain-damaged employees. Here is an AWESOME resource written by engineers about how to clean indoor air (here is another one in The Lancet).
N95 and similar masks are exceptionally effective (they don’t just filter, they actually attract and capture aerosols!), especially if they’re fitted (i.e. tested to not leak around the edges). Masking in school reduces spread. Surgical masks are better than nothing but significantly less effective. Simple cloth masks are nearly worthless.
Increased ventilation (outdoor air mixing with indoor air), filtration and other technologies (especially upper air UV-C) can make indoor air MUCH safer.
None take much extra energy and offer significant additional benefits — less spread of other pathogens, allergens and chemicals (esp VOCs). Cleaner air has been shown to correlate with better learning outcomes.
Corsi-Rosenthal Boxes are simple, inexpensive and highly effective ways to clean a ton of indoor air. For between $100 and $300, you can clean the air in most classrooms for a year.
Open windows, upgraded furnace filters, HEPA filters, inline HVAC supplemental filtration systems and running HVAC fans constantly with MERV-13 or better filters all improve indoor air quality. There is also evidence that indoor air humidity can play a role (sweet spot for lower transmission of Covid seems to be between 40 and 60 % RH)
CO2 levels are a great proxy for the quality of air, but do not directly detect levels of COVID-19. They also are not impacted at all by most air filters. Here is a significant consensus statement among experts about the need to clean indoor air.
While there are some promising advances (and here and here) in treatments and vaccines, there doesn’t seem to be any magic bullet imminently (Cuba may give us a hint).
I want my now 6 year old daughter to grow up to be an emotionally and physically healthy woman. I want her to have healthy parents well into her adult life. I don’t want her to experience the trauma of losing friends to debilitating illness and/or death as children.
I want the same things for you and your families. All I’m asking is that you help us all breathe cleaner air so we can get back to living healthy, productive and fulfilling lives.
I have links to many sources in the article and an extensive bibliography of sources I used to put this together. I didn’t directly cover vaccine safety or the disinformation, but I included studies in my source list that cover this or that were pre-vaccine (i.e. couldn’t be related to vaccines).
I’ve done my best to use primary, peer-reviewed, top-tier journal articles and credible analyses of those as sources in the article itself.
I wrote 2 previous articles (here and here) in 2020 about Covid — warning of its seriousness. I believe they may have made an impact which is why I wrote this and compiled these sources. We know A LOT more now. I hope this article and its extensive sourcing helps moves us towards acknowledging our situation and taking steps towards addressing it.
Sources (some are also cited directly in article):
Immune dysfunction lasts for at least 8 months: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-021-01113-x?s=09 another similar study: https://liu.se/en/news-item/svar-covid-19-ger-langvariga-negativa-effekter-pa-immunforsvaret
Great answer to why doctors aren’t consistent about Covid-19: https://twitter.com/1goodtern/status/1582300766110289921?s=20&t=Wr83tw9lprAnnqRBjPfzpg
Masks that I use for everyday activities: 3M Aura
Article in Guardian (January 26th) with similar argument: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2023/jan/26/covid-roulette-clean-air-ventilation-long-covid
EPA request for comment about Indoor Air Quality: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2022/10/05/2022-21590/request-for-information-better-indoor-air-quality-management-to-help-reduce-covid-19-and-other
Latest Covid variant is escaping even 4x mRNA vaccinations: https://www.news-medical.net/news/20230109/Profound-immune-escape-by-SARS-CoV-2-XBB1-even-after-4-vaccine-doses.aspx
A cool alternative to CR boxes for cleaning indoor air: https://www.cleanairkits.com/
Great free tool for finding available air filters: https://cleanairstars.com/filters/#HEPASelector
Great, detailed instructions for building a CR box: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1WPrJBBD9uItDzv0jl0uP3OXIWR5Y7ghQ/view
Another approach to cleaning indoor air (very interesting and practical school solution): https://uv-can.com/collections/uv-ceiling-lights/products/alyssum-uv-c-air-purifier-ceiling-panel-light
How the Entertainment Industry treats Covid is like a canary in the coal mine: read @alexmeshkin who runs a testing company that does a lot of work for that industry.
Haunting recent Twitter thread from ER Nurse about what’s happening today: https://twitter.com/kathryniveyy/status/1598698053149638660?s=20&t=Wr83tw9lprAnnqRBjPfzpg
CBS News interview arguing that reinfections can be dangerous: https://www.cbsnews.com/boston/news/is-covid-reinfection-harmful-dr-mallika-marshall-answers-health-questions/
One in 20 haven’t recovered from Covid (large UK study): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-33415-5
Large Hospital in Ontario calling on Red Cross as it overflows: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/ottawa/canadian-red-cross-cheo-ottawa-childrens-hospital-1.6673628
72% increase in risk of type 1 diabetes in kids: https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2022-09-27/covid-infection-raises-a-childs-odds-for-type-1-diabetes-by-72
Even mild covid may change your brain: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2790595 NBC analysis: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/long-covid-even-mild-covid-linked-damage-brain-months-infection-rcna18959 Another study (UK MRI study): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04569-5
Twitter thread about why even mild covid infections can cause lots of damage to your body: https://twitter.com/laurieallee/status/1521178772023652352?s=46&t=ehESz8AkKtNrraU8kjuS0g
Video (“I’ve never wanted to be wrong as much in my life”):
Time article about what we face this winter:
It’s spreading everywhere: https://twitter.com/cyrusshahpar46/status/1598709517583278084?s=46&t=LUqOFPrUYmQIB5WZ-jWk4g source: https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#variant-proportions
Why we’re getting sicker with other things post covid infections: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2022.1034159/full
More evidence that we’re more vulnerable post covid infections: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-021-00728-2
Kid’s don’t build much immunity from prior infections and each infection may make their next infection more injurious: https://www.news-medical.net/news/20230126/Childrene28099s-immune-systems-do-not-develop-e28098adaptivee28099-memory-to-protect-against-second-time-SARS-CoV-2-infection.aspx
Tiny blood clots: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-02286-7
Medium term impact: https://neurosciencenews.com/post-covid-brain-21904/
Long Covid risk: Not large difference in 2 year impact on long covid between people who had severe versus mild covid: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2798446
Brain impact: New variants may be more likely to cause brain damage: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-022-01241-2 another source: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3201027/omicron-subvariant-ba2-replicates-faster-brain-cells-other-strains-study-finds
Brain impact (post covid) from MRI studies: https://neurosciencenews.com/post-covid-brain-21904/
More brain: https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/long-covid-even-mild-covid-linked-damage-brain-months-infection-rcna18959
Covid aging body: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-29801-8
Covid impacts prenatal lung growth: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(22)00060-1/fulltext
Example of Upper Air UV-C: https://www.americanultraviolet.com/germicidal-healthcare-solutions/upper-air-UV-for-healthcare.html
Lung and Cardiovascular damage video:
Heart damage: https://www.heart.org/en/news/2020/09/03/what-covid-19-is-doing-to-the-heart-even-after-recovery
More heart: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568175/
Cuba insights: http://mediccreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/10/MEDICC-Cuba-COVID-19-Vaccine-Full-Report_2022.pdf
RSV AND FLU COMPLICATIONS: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.11.29.22282887v1
Pre-print on Long Covid tissue injury and Leukocyte changes: https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202210.0342/v1
Multi-system failure: https://insightplus.mja.com.au/2022/46/more-proof-covid-is-a-multi-system-cluster-bomb/
Masks needed: https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/holiday-travel-covid-rsv-flu-means-time-bring-mask-mandates-back-rcna58186
Thread of threads on organ damage: https://twitter.com/laurieallee/status/1521178772023652352?s=46&t=Y73XiMMBXaKGY9YQFlwO8g
Covid infections rose after lifting mask mandates: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2211029?query=featured_home
Reinfection risk: https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2022/11/10/covi-n10.html
You really want to avoid getting Covid again: https://www.self.com/story/covid-reinfection-health-risks-study
Humidity “sweet spot” for reducing Covid spread indoors: https://news.mit.edu/2022/covid-humidity-spread-1116
The compounding damage of multiple infections: https://easychair.substack.com/p/covids-cumulative-effect
The business case for investing in IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) — Twitter thread with sources for claims: https://twitter.com/samjcauston/status/1595801530115948544?s=46&t=wh5rYs8h2oF4J5lwa2ycEA
Indoor air quality report by engineers. What to do to get higher air quality: https://ospe.on.ca/indoor-air-quality/
Aggregation of studies on benefits of clean indoor air (IAQ): https://www.epa.gov/iaq-schools/evidence-scientific-literature-about-improved-academic-performance
How it spreads inside the body: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abo0171
Some hope: https://theconversation.com/covid-nasal-sprays-may-one-day-prevent-and-treat-infection-heres-where-the-science-is-up-to-193840
More hope: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.11.25.517953v1
Parkinson’s like symptoms (Australian TV video on Twitter): https://twitter.com/9newsaus/status/1587353399141584900?s=46&t=IHnvRAwv0YVz-5VU36dLrA
Disruption of immune system: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08830185.2021.1883600
Long Covid Treatment Poll of providers suggests Viagra may be among most impactful in practice: https://twitter.com/organichemusic/status/1592852928267956225?s=46&t=hynjl4cY3j4vQVUElCiTnQ
Home Rapid Antigen Tests are failing to detect new strains: https://www.sfchronicle.com/health/article/COVID-in-California-Rapid-home-tests-have-low-17584496.php
Brain damage: https://time.com/6235600/covid-19-brain-changes-linked/
Brain damage in cases of mild infections: https://www.houstonmethodist.org/leading-medicine-blog/articles/2022/oct/study-covid-19-can-accelerate-brain-aging-lead-to-irreversible-neurological-conditions/
Another source: https://fortune.com/well/2022/03/08/long-covid-brain-aging-damage-smell-study-mild-symptoms/
Visual interpretation of damage in Long Covid: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00259-022-05753-5
Study of PET images in Long Covid: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00259-022-06013-2
Same results pre-vaccine introduction (i.e. it’s NOT the vaccine): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837643/
Another brain aging source: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2022/dec/01/brains-of-post-pandemic-teens-show-signs-of-faster-ageing-study-finds
There is a LOT of Flu now in the US: https://twitter.com/deannamarie208/status/1598383257015705600?s=46&t=cA1aUUv1dbXL3Sco-QRzZA
Early concerns about brain damage: https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/08/health/coronavirus-brain-damage-study-intl-hnk-scli-scn/index.html
Loss of IQ from severe Covid: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/236034/lasting-brain-impacts-severe-covid-19-equivalent/
Liver damage: https://www.diagnosticimaging.com/view/new-ultrasound-study-shows-increased-liver-stiffness-10-months-after-covid-19-infection
Impacts on kids (serious research): https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1004122
How Covid suppresses the immune system: https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamhaseltine/2021/08/12/how-sars-cov-2-evades-and-suppresses-the-immune-system-part-one/
Liver Manifestation of Long Covid in kids https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35687535/
Why we are doing this so wrong (video by epidemiology): https://youtu.be/OlFQ26SpGM0
Consensus among experts to reduce spread via masks and indoor air cleaning/ventilation: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-05398-2
The prophet of long covid (?): https://twitter.com/fitterhappieraj/status/1592934316145016833?s=46&t=hynjl4cY3j4vQVUElCiTnQ
Reinfection is usually worse/riskier than previous infection(s): https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/repeat-covid-19-infections-riskier-than-first-bout-with-virus-study-finds-1.6148995
Covid causing intensity of RSV: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.11.29.22282887v1
Gaps in doctors’ knowledge and risk of cardiac damage: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35687535/
Immunity Debt (t-cells): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32425950/
Commonality in impact with AIDS: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342997179_AIDS_and_COVID-19_are_two_diseases_separated_by_a_common_lymphocytopenia
Immunity (t-cells): https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.25.20200329v1.full.pdf
Immunity suppression in early stages: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19706-9
Alternative theory about mechanism for impacting immunity and multi-organ impact: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779612/
MIS-C (other study): https://www.jci.org/articles/view/146614
Role of GI Tract in MIS-C from Covid: https://www.jci.org/articles/view/149633
Discussion of long-term residual impact of Covid: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/10/10/1267/htm
Investigation of people who recovered from long Covid: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/146701
Immune dysfunction lasts AT LEAST 8 months after (each) infection: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-021-01113-x?s=09
Understanding the Effects of Age and T-Cell Differentiation on COVID-19 Severity: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2022.853606/full
Study of immunology and immunopathology of covid: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abm8108
Risk of Superantigens (overactive t-cells that lead to disruption of immune system): https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/11/4/390
Covid infects and kills Lymphoid Cells (paper link here): https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamhaseltine/2022/04/14/sars-cov-2-actively-infects-and-kills-lymphoid-cells/?sh=7ae1454386b8
Evidence of persistence of Covid 12 months after severe covid: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/all.15372
Mechanism for Covid to escape immunity: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.05.20.492764v1.full.pdf
Does persistence of covid antigens cause long covid? https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9057012/
T-cell damage causing immune disruption in pregnant women: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.08.18.504053v1.full.pdf
Distinguishing features of Long Covid: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.08.09.22278592v1.full.pdf
Unexpected mechanism of immune downmodulation: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/75/7/1232/6572226?login=false
SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 subverts bidirectional nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking to inhibit host gene expression and contribute to viral pathogenesis: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.10.18.512708v1.full.pdf
Efficacy of vaccines at preventing infection or transmission: https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-022-07418-y
Similarity of Long Covid to AIDS in key mechanisms: https://www.cleveland.com/news/2022/10/in-cleveland-and-beyond-researchers-begin-to-unravel-the-mystery-of-long-covid-19.html
Immunity debt isn’t a real thing: https://counterdisinformationproject.substack.com/p/immunity-debt-established-2021?utm_source=twitter&sd=pf
Reinfection has been found to happen as soon as 19 days after recovery from previous infection: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35488305/
While “hybrid immunity” can offer longer term immunity from the same variant, the rate at which new variants are spreading could dramatically reduce this: https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2022/11/study-shows-reinfection-protection-covid-19-vaccines
Basic overview of how COVID works and why you don’t want to catch it (again): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYwoNpa6fq0&t=1s
The risk of getting Long Covid from each infection is roughly 20%: https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2022/11/study-shows-reinfection-protection-covid-19-vaccines
How Covid works: https://twitter.com/heisse13/status/1598241031757045760?s=46&t=fU_ghBct3vl6B6hF6i2Sjw
Article about the relative value of n95 masks compared to surgical masks: https://www.axios.com/2022/01/11/n95-mask-protection-covid
Each infection adds more risk of severe and long-term impact: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-02051-3
Schools closed because of unprecedented student/staff illness: In Ohio and Kentucky: https://www.fox19.com/2022/11/04/attendance-down-classes-canceled-across-tri-state-schools-due-flu-rsv/ In North Carolina: https://wlos.com/news/local/illness-absents-jackson-county-schools-closed-covid-flu-rsv-employees-staff-students (in Tennessee: https://wreg.com/news/mid-south/flu-forces-mcnairy-county-schools-to-close/ in Maine: https://news.yahoo.com/lewiston-superintendent-warns-parents-consider-035900853.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly90LmNvLw&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAFDIfckuo4x1lImwxULbp453yzLE_fyPQMopLG3uWYA4HKqq0RE2B8qnhAZl1aTmdMLSD7dyDFerIqu0ygnXmN7cgpcGv_Ye9FK27eqnWapRPyj5KgEWFFfoEJHoUOWmfJsSSFhlXu2GG_9ek6QrPFWbzLxUuqqu-jVSt7F7D_ct in Tennessee: https://www.manchestertimes.com/news/local/manchester-city-schools-will-be-closed-monday-nov-7/article_0ba07dde-5c66-11ed-b218-979833a2a98d.html in Tennessee: https://www.local3news.com/local-news/polk-co-schools-closed-monday-because-of-illness/article_eb495ba0-5c5b-11ed-a294-7f2979d2cf9b.html in Kentucky: https://www.kfvs12.com/2022/11/04/all-paducah-public-schools-head-start-preschool-closed-mon-due-flu/ in NC: https://www.wspa.com/news/local-news/nc-school-district-closes-monday-due-to-illnesses/ in Ohio: https://spectrumnews1.com/oh/dayton/news/2022/11/04/school-closures-around-state in Michigan: https://www.clickondetroit.com/news/local/2022/11/03/6-year-old-boy-dies-from-complications-of-rsv-in-oakland-county/
RSV immunity debt doesn’t fit what’s happening: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2010624/
Previous RSV infections may decrease immune response: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2022.826666/full
School masking works: https://time.com/6231516/universal-masking-in-school-works-new-data-shows-how-well/?xid=homepage
Each Covid infection is riskier than the last for both acute and long covid: https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/repeat-covid-is-riskier-than-first-infection-study-finds-2022-11-10/
Paper this analysis is based upon: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-02051-3
Each reinfection increases risk of organ failure and death: https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/repeat-covid-19-infections-increase-risk-of-organ-failure-death/
Analysis of this study: https://nypost.com/2022/11/10/repeat-covid-infections-could-be-deadly-study/
Even asymptomatic acute infection in kids can lead to serious issues long term: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1808869422001392?via%3Dihub
Awesome summary of the current covid situation: https://jessicawildfire.substack.com/p/you-may-be-early-but-youre-not-wrong
Great Twitter thread explaining why it’s a good idea to NOT expose infants to RSV: https://twitter.com/lisa_iannattone/status/1597246724032303104?s=46&t=MjiCAojS1uy54jk04qOoRQ
Mutations following unusual and scary patterns that portend what may come next: https://virological.org/t/sars-cov-2-evolution-post-omicron/911
Even mild covid can increase risk of heart problems: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/even-mild-covid-can-increase-the-risk-of-heart-problems/
One year after covid study reveals increased cardiovascular risk:https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2789793
Johns Hopkins: Covid spares nobodies heart: https://publichealth.jhu.edu/2022/covid-and-the-heart-it-spares-no-one
Blood clots, heart problems, kidney failure, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, heightened risk of rare pediatric health issues in kids who’ve had covid: https://fortune.com/2022/08/04/covid-creates-higher-risk-kids-children-pediatric-blood-clots-kidney-failure-heart-problems-type-1-diabetes/
Heart risk soars after even mild case: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-00403-0
NPR explores cardiovascular issues post infection: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2022/03/05/1084413347/for-some-patients-cardiovascular-problems-persist-long-after-covid
Cleveland Clinic studies COVID Heart Damage: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/23011-covid-heart-damage
Nature article summarizing what we know about heart damage from Covid: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-02074-3
Long term risks after severe covid: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-01689-3
Covid causing strokes in young and healthy: https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/04/24/strokes-coronavirus-young-patients/
Covid causing many times increased risk increase for stroke and heart attack: https://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/covid-19-diagnosis-raises-risk-of-heart-attack-stroke
Why your doctor is often wrong about Covid: https://twitter.com/1goodtern/status/1582300766110289921?s=20&t=x2bi5wyfGU_P4o0T0sYaxg
Strokes in people of all ages (Utah): https://healthcare.utah.edu/healthfeed/postings/2022/01/covid19-increasing-stroke-risks.php
Financial Times article about post-covid health issues: https://www.ft.com/content/26e0731f-15c4-4f5a-b2dc-fd8591a02aec
Pre-vaccine availability, covid was causing heart-related issues regardless of patient health: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200604095600.htm
Strokes in young people: https://www.thelancet.com/article/S1474-4422(20)30272-6/fulltext
Covid becoming “highest risk factor” for heart disease even a year after infection: https://www.science.org/content/article/covid-19-takes-serious-toll-heart-health-full-year-after-recovery
Risk regardless of severity of acute covid (even asymptomatic): https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.27.21268448v1
Cardiologists seeing new types of patients, likely from Covid: https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2022/02/21/covid-cardiac-issues-longterm/
Heart Arrhythmias caused by covid maybe part of mechanism: https://news.weill.cornell.edu/news/2022/04/are-covid-19-linked-arrhythmias-caused-by-viral-damage-to-the-heart’s-pacemaker-cells
Covid effects heart regardless of age: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abe2813
Stroke risk in young people who have or had covid: https://www.jefferson.edu/about/news-and-events/2022/03/study-confirms-stroke-risk-in-younger-covid19-patients.html
Even mild covid likely to damage heart: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-02000-0
Blood clots from severe covid (not from vaccine): https://www.pennmedicine.org/news/news-releases/2022/august/people-with-severe-covid-face-increased-risk-of-life-threatening-blood-clots
How Covid impacts heart (National Geographic): https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/how-covid-19-harms-the-heart
Covid linked to 33x increase in potentially fatal blood clot: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/apr/06/covid-linked-33-fold-increase-risk-pulmonary-embolism-dvt
Inflammation a culprit in long covid heart problems: https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/longcovid/100597?vrw=0
Lingering chest pains, shortness of breath after mild Covid: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-02002-y
Large study finds risks of vascular events reduces over time after acute phase, but still remains higher than control: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.060785
Covid causing impaired left ventricular deformation and ventricular-arterial coupling: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00380-022-02180-2
Covid may cause DNA damage in heart: https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/unlike-flu-covid-19-attacks-dna-in-the-heart-new-research-20220929-p5bm10.html original study here: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imm.13577
Guidance on treating long covid heart issues: https://www.jacc.org/doi/10.1016/j.jacc.2022.02.003
Fortune article about serious risks to younger people from covid: https://fortune.com/2022/10/06/strokes-heart-attacks-sudden-death-america-long-term-risks-catching-covid-carolyn-barber/
Stroke victims are getting younger (large multi-national study): https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032927
Covid is a serious vascular disease with primary symptoms of a respiratory ailment: https://academic.oup.com/jalm/article/6/5/1099/6317833?login=false
Long covid seems to be diagnosable from blood biomarkers: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/london/it-s-in-the-blood-researchers-discover-new-way-to-diagnose-long-covid-1.6615272
Microclots in Long Covid: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.10.13.22281055v1
Increased heart attacks linked to covid: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-covid-surges-linked-spike-heart.html
Excess deaths from heart-related issues are greater for younger people (<44) than older people: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.28187
Covid tied to higher risk of blood clots in large study (Bloomberg): https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-10-24/covid-s-heart-effects-infections-raise-clotting-death-risks-in-large-study
Dramatically increased risk of blood clots post covid infection: https://www.cnbc.com/2022/10/25/people-who-caught-mild-covid-had-increased-risk-of-blood-clots-british-study-finds.html
Increased risk of stroke in adults: https://www.pedneur.com/article/S0887-8994(22)00210-7/fulltext
Mild covid may lead to higher stroke risk in children than severe covid: https://www.pedneur.com/article/S0887-8994(22)00210-7/fulltext
Covid seems to wear down our immune systems, more every time we get it: https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2022/11/07/COVID-Reinfections-And-Immunity/
Inline HVAC filtration can make a big difference: https://scienceblog.com/534807/new-purifier-may-cut-airborne-covid-by-10x/
Original paper (broader analysis of air quality in university classrooms): https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/21/14558
Latest Variants evading vaccines: https://time.com/6230059/covid-19-variants-omicron-vaccine/
Masks work: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2776536
Masks work — aggregation of research and great explanations: https://billius27.substack.com/p/masks-evidence-and-use
More validation of universal masking in healthcare setting: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768533
Analysis of large masking study — masks in schools work: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/983270
Another validation of masks (retrospective): https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.11.04.22281935v1
Twitter thread by MD that aggregates studies: https://twitter.com/DrCanuckMD/status/1592658770743955457?s=20&t=holzadcdyGtmIhqiE9UTcQ
Weakened Immunity leading to Superbugs: https://www.thestreet.com/travel/covid-monkeypox-now-las-vegas-strip-faces-a-superbug
Where to buy quality masks: https://projectn95.org
Case study on adding filters to schools: https://twitter.com/sri_srikrishna/status/1593497937497112577?s=46&t=YOpLtEC8QrUd7dnCtwL5rA
Symptoms of Long Covid in children may change over time: https://www.siasat.com/symptoms-of-long-covid-in-children-may-change-over-time-lancet-study-2472652/
Great visual of risks of Long Covid: https://twitter.com/skittlesdeedo/status/1599632887359639553?s=46&t=TWoJvo8JYqPuJqkslI_1iA
Possible explanation for rise in fungal, bacterial, viral severity (Twitter thread with sources): https://twitter.com/jeffgilchrist/status/1599756689489944576?s=46&t=TWoJvo8JYqPuJqkslI_1iA
Clean air guide from the lancet Covid commission: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5ef3652ab722df11fcb2ba5d/t/637740d40f35a9699a7fb05f/1668759764821/Lancet+Covid+Commission+TF+Report+Nov+2022.pdf
Breakdown in BMJ of how covid-19 is spread: https://www.bmj.com/content/378/bmj-2022-069940
Fortune article about rapid spread of Covid in US after thanksgiving: https://fortune.com/well/2022/12/05/thanksgiving-covid-surge-us-tripledemic-hospitalizations-rising-coroanvirus-omicron-perefct-storm-holiday-season-vaccination-rsv-flu/
New study on efficacy of bivalent on the newest variants (not promising): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-02162-x
Summary of new Long Covid research including brand new study (Twitter thread with links): https://twitter.com/weselymd/status/1600470718403133440?s=46&t=-uk1fwny6ys7im2VBrbXaA
New Norwegian research studying whether long Covid varies between Covid variants: https://sciencenorway.no/covid19-ntb-english-virus/same-amount-of-long-covid-symptoms-following-omicron-and-delta-variants/2120843
Study of sensitivity of RAT (home rapid antigen tests) at detecting Omicron variants: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1198743X22005705
New research on impact of second infections: https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20221111/repeat-covid-infection-doubles-risk-of-death
Twitter thread that aggregates research related to immune system dysregulation due to Covid: https://twitter.com/raffyflynnart/status/1602033509568225280?s=46&t=4kjtlAfL494Gwvg93r63EA
The sum of all fears. MERS merges with Covid-19: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242116/
Great thread on what we know about along Long Covid: https://twitter.com/weselymd/status/1602620036274917376?s=46&t=3rK63fFP4ZzYgUk3pIzjrA
Monoclonal antibodies no longer working (Summary article): https://thevaccinereaction.org/2022/12/monoclonal-antibodies-no-longer-effective-against-new-strains-of-sars-cov-2/
SARS-CoV-2 infection and persistence in the human body and brain at autopsy: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-05542-y
Increased maternal deaths due to Covid (up by 1/3!!!): https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-23-105871
Sweden seeing tough-to-refute evidence that “Immunity debt” isn’t likely behind RSV and other illness increased intensity: https://www.gp.se/nyheter/g%C3%B6teborg/rekordm%C3%A5nga-sjuka-barn-rummen-med-syrgas-r%C3%A4cker-inte-p%C3%A5-barnakuten-1.88098051
New variants are very concerning for their immune evasion: https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674%2822%2901531-8?rss=yes&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter
New article about how Covid weakens our immune systems: https://www.therecord.com/news/waterloo-region/2022/12/20/immune-systems-seriously-weakened-by-covid.html
Dental health issues (!!!!): https://www.news-medical.net/news/20221220/SARS-CoV-2-structural-proteins-trigger-periodontal-fibrosis.aspx
Very high immune evasiveness of latest variants: https://www.news-medical.net/news/20221216/SARS-CoV-2-Omicron-BQ-and-XBB-subvariants-show-exceptional-immune-evasion-properties.aspx
Great explanation about cleaning indoor air: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/984232
Thread of immunity dysfunction papers: https://twitter.com/raffyflynnart/status/1602033509568225280?s=46&t=fyoKzqTk3OeiYjTU7Bt1ww
Fortune magazine article about how Covid May reactivate otherwise-latent viruses: https://fortune.com/well/2022/12/26/is-long-covid-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis/
Lingering Covid found in Gallbladder and Gastric Tissues after previous infection: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11695-022-06338-9
New paper on immune dysfunction after mild and moderate covid infections: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-35638-y
Large study by HHS on Long Covid (may impact 5–30% of people infected): https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2799926
Paper analyzing methods of cleaning indoor air: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-5309/13/1/102
Covid shown to cause brain inflammation: https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2022/11/silent-killer%E2%80%99-covid-19-shown-trigger-inflammation-brain
Covid causes large and micro blood clots (new terrifying study in Nature): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-35638-y
Article about rare vaccine injuries: https://www.science.org/content/article/rare-cases-coronavirus-vaccines-may-cause-long-covid-symptoms
Long Covid more likely to come after mild infection in acute phase (summary — Link to paper is in summary): https://theconversation.com/long-covid-stemmed-from-mild-cases-of-covid-19-in-most-people-according-to-a-new-multicountry-study-195707
Another analysis of this: https://arstechnica.com/science/2023/01/long-covid-stemmed-from-mild-cases-of-covid-19-in-most-people/
60% of children who recovered from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 still exhibit mild subclinical systolic cardiac impairment after an average follow-up of 148 ± 68 days from disease onset: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/12/1/186
Great analysis of available evidence that Covid is (mostly) spread via aerosolized particles (ie airborne:
Study shows that reinfections are as dangerous as initial infections for both acute and post-acute sequelae: https://www.news-medical.net/news/20230110/Study-explores-incidence-severity-and-long-COVID-associations-of-SARS-CoV-2-reinfections.aspx
Study comparing SARS to COVID-19 (ie SARS-1 vs SARS-2) including devastating summary of “long SARS” patients (zero improvement across 50 patients): https://academic.oup.com/ooim/article/3/1/iqac002/6604756?login=false
Long covid outcomes at one year after mild SARS-CoV-2 infection: nationwide cohort study: https://www.bmj.com/content/380/bmj-2022-072529
Excellent Twitter thread (with lots of additional links) about where we are and what we need to do through the lens of primary care doctors: https://twitter.com/drdavidkeegan/status/1613659801300635649?s=46&t=WpXjwnzDeRzFcYotYYXKRw
Review in Nature of what we know about Long Covid: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41579-022-00846-2 (non paywall link here)
Summary of studies on persistence of virus in body post-acute Covid (including brain): https://www.medpagetoday.com/neurology/longcovid/102384
Great Twitter thread with published research related to Covid causing immune system dysregulation: https://twitter.com/andrewewing11/status/1614372821034991617?s=46&t=FvqD_wVTGG10jBQWZDVhkw
Paper on indoor ventilation from expert: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/ina.12946
Article about cleaning indoor air — Conclusion is multi-technology approach ventilation, filtration and disinfecting via far UV (or upper air UV): https://time.com/6143799/covid-19-indoor-air-cleaning/
Excellent overall summary of risks of getting Covid (again) with citations and explanations: https://tactnowinfo.substack.com/p/the-covid-situation-simplified-ten
Research review suggests long COVID may last indefinitely for some people and mimic other ailments: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2023-01-covid-indefinitely-people-mimic-ailments.html
Excellent aggregation of sources related to Covid, organized by category: https://raindrop.io/JW_Lists/covid-lists-30427555?utm_source=substack&utm_medium=email
Vaccinated people less likely to get long Covid: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2800554
Research in process to study far UV efficacy — Far-UVC Light Devices in Long-term Care Facilities to Reduce Infections (UVCinLTCs): https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05084898
COVID-19 patients retain elevated risk of death for at least 18 months after infection: https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Press-Office/Press-releases/covid-19-patients-retain-elevated-risk-of-death-for-at-least-18-months-after-inf
Masks and Upward Ventilation Work- Quantitative evaluation of precautions against the COVID-19 indoor transmission through human coughing: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-26837-0
Extraordinary study of airborne spread of SARS-1: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa032867
Large meta-analysis in Nature about the impact of Covid in children: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-13495-5
New pre-print suggesting substantial risk of autoimmune disorders post Covid infection(s): https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.01.25.23285014v1
Acute and postacute sequelae associated with SARS-CoV-2 reinfection: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-022-02051-3
Workforce impact from post-acute Covid is substantial: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/jan/29/covid-absence-workforce-health-long-covid
McKinsey Report on cost of lost productivity: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/healthcare/our-insights/one-billion-days-lost-how-covid-19-is-hurting-the-us-workforce
Study of bats and their unique characteristics for both spreading and perhaps treating/preventing viral infections: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-03128-0
NY Times article — Long Covid keeping people out of work force: https://www.nytimes.com/2023/01/24/health/long-covid-work.html?searchResultPosition=1
CNBC story on Long Covid causing labor shortage: https://www.cnbc.com/2023/01/30/long-covid-has-underappreciated-role-in-labor-gap-study.html
Study of Covid-caused deaths among children (JAMA — Jan 2023): https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2800816
Covid deaths likely undercounted: https://theconversation.com/covid-19-deaths-in-the-us-continue-to-be-undercounted-research-shows-despite-claims-of-overcounts-198266
Thread of newly published (2/1/23) meta-studies about cardiac-related Covid issues: https://twitter.com/crystalmundypsy/status/1620784081482170369?s=46&t=6nBreo2TZ9KKo41-_syV5w
Nature paper on Far-UV (may be very helpful for cleaning indoor air): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21058-w
New pre-release paper from UCSF on mechanisms of Long Covid: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.02.09.527892v1.full.pdf
Covid infections harm your cardiovascular system (Fortune Magazine): https://fortune.com/well/2023/02/18/how-to-protect-heart-health-in-covid-era-omicron-attack-stroke-cardiomyopathy/
Quick BBC story about remarkable effectiveness of HEPA filters: https://www.bbc.com/news/av/uk-england-cambridgeshire-59490424
Devastating overview of Long Covid from a British doctor specializing in this condition: https://twitter.com/frozen/status/1628821861542027264?s=46&t=y-dAaYHrwLaOrsLjHCFjIg
Great thread on evidence supporting respirators:
JAMA study of health outcomes of people who’ve had Covid versus control who didn’t: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama-health-forum/fullarticle/2802095
Effect of mouthwash containing CPC on reducing Covid viral loads: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/omi.12408
Analysis of available pharmaceuticals and recommendations on future drug development: https://www.insideprecisionmedicine.com/topics/patient-care/coronavirus/can-we-still-contain-and-possibly-eliminate-covid-19-yes-and-here-is-how/
Aggregation of post-acute heart and cardiovascular issues from Covid: https://erictopol.substack.com/p/heart-attacks-and-strokes-late-after
Actuarial analysis of excess deaths due to Covid (Australia): https://www.actuaries.digital/2023/03/06/almost-20000-excess-deaths-for-2022-in-australia/
JAMA study of insurance database to analyze post-acute sequela from Covid: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama-health-forum/fullarticle/2802095
Flu deaths versus Covid deaths (source):
Sweden RSV Cases: